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© Nevzat Çağlar TÜFEKÇİ / Milas - 2017
www.milas.org.tr  

MİLAS JEWS

The     sign     for     Jewish     Cemetery.     (Photo     by Nevzat Tufekci) By Nevzat Çağlar Tüfekçi Although    it    is    widely    known    that    Jews lived   in   Milas,   an   ancient   city   in   southwestern Turkey,   part   of   Muğla   Province   and   it   was   the ancient   capital   of   Caria   and   of   the   Anatolian Turkish    Beylik    of    Menteşe,    the    territory    of Milas    district    contains    a    remarkable    twenty- seven    archaeological    sites.    In    the    18th    and 19th    centuries,    the    history    of    Jews    in    the region   is   older.      In   certain   historical   sources,   it is   shown   that   in   the   ancient   port   city   of   Iasos, which    was    within    Milas,    there    was    a    Jewish community     in     the     centuries     before     the common    era.        It    is    also    understood    from    a Hebrew   tomb   inscription   in   Port   Gumusluk   of Bodrum,   which   is   again   near   Milas,   that   Jews lived in the area in 6 B.C. During   the   Mentese   Principality,   which ruled   in   Anatolia   and   had   Milas   as   its   capital city, Jews lived in Milas during 1300’s. Among    the    minorities    living    in    Milas, Greeks    were    the    largest    group.        Jews    and Armenians   followed   them   in   order.      The   Greek population   was   the   greatest.      As   a   result   of   the 1924      Turkish-Greek      Population      Exchange, about    3000    Greeks    migrated    from    Milas    to Greek   islands.      Jews   were   the   second   largest minority   group   in   Milas   after   Greeks.      There are   no   official   records   indicating   the   presence of   Jews   in   Milas   until   the   19th   century.      Jews came   to   Milas   in   the   19th   century   from   Rodos, Aydin, and Izmir. JEWISH POPULATION IN MILAS During   the   first   half   of   the   19th   century, there   was   a   Jewish   community   consisting   of ten    families.        The    population    of    the    Jewish community    in    Milas    was    542    between    1904 and   1905;   and   it   increased   to   1005   between 1914-1915.      According   to   Ottoman   records,   on March   14,   1914,   there   were   1615   Jews   living   in Mentese,   in   the   Mugla   province.      During   these years,    the    most    densely    populated    Jewish communities    of    Mugla    were    in    the    city    of Milas.      There   were   two   reasons   for   this.      One of    the    reasons    is    that    some    of    the    Jewish communities   moved   to   Milas   because   of   the possibility    of    bomb    attacks    from    ships    in Bodrum   during   the   First   World   War.      Another reason    is    the    commercial    potential    in    Milas and   the   liveliness   of   economic   life   there.      This liveliness made Milas attractive. Jews   in   Milas   used   to   live   in   the   oldest areas   of   the   city,   in   the   Hoca   Bedrettin   and Hisarbasi   neighborhoods.      Because   of   this,   the Hoca   Bedrettin   neighborhood   is   also   known   as ‘Jewish   Town’   among   many.      Mostly   Jews   lived in    these    areas.        They    worshiped    in    the    two synagogues     on     Cicek     Street     in     the     Hoca Bedrettin     neighborhood.          One     of     these synagogues   were   built   in   1850,   and   the   other in   1897.      The   location   of   these   synagogues   is now    used    for    the    Societal    Education    Center Directorate building.  The    first    governor    of    the    community, Haham    Abraham    Amato,    who    received    his education     in     the     traditional     Jewish     school Yeshiva   in   Rodos   in   the   year   1835,   came   to Milas   and   took   over   the   duties   from   his   father and     managed     community     affairs     for     30 consecutive    years.        Over    the    years,    as    the population       of       the       Jewish       community increased,   so   did   the   number   of   their   rulers.     Celebi    Mordehai    Levi    from    Izmir,    Morcado Abaof   from   Rodos,   and   Celebi   Nissim   Soriano from   Aydin   came   to   Milas   and   had   influence over the management of the community. JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS IN MILAS At   the   beginning   of   the   20th   century,   the organization      called      Juven      Union      (Youth Assembly)   took   over   all   of   the   institutions   of the   community.      The   board   of   the   Juven   Union included     Nissim     J.     Tarika,     Hizkia     Franco, Rahamim   S.   Tarika,   Gad   Franco,   Marco   Israel and Alabuf. The     ‘Women’s     Assembly,’     which     was established     in     1927     by     Rebecca     Benettar, Kadum   Notrica,   Rachel   Amato,   Birlante   Israel, Elvira    Pisante,    Maria    Alhedef    and    Estreilla Amato,       would       arrange       sewing       classes especially   for   the   orphaned   and   needy   Jewish girls in order to help them prepare for life. Certain   other   women’s   organizations,   as well,   used   to   organize   parties   and   balls   to   fund the   needy.      The   Milas   Jewish   community   would try    to    meet    the    needs    of    the    orphanage    in Izmir and the Jewish Hospital. The   reforms   of   the   early   years   of   the Republic   did   not   cause   any   discomfort   among the   Jews   in   Milas.      Jews   welcomed   the   modern reforms,     such     as     the     replacement     of     the Arabic   alphabet   with   Latin   letters;   wearing   of hats   instead   of   the   fez;   and   abolishment   of   the usage   of   the   veil.      Under   the   1934   surname law,     many     Jews     took     Turkish     last     names.       There     was     great     admiration     felt     towards Ataturk     among     the     Jews     of     Milas.          In November    10,    1938,    when    Ataturk    passed away,   Jewish   stores   in   Milas   were   closed   down and   a   mourning   atmosphere   took   over   in   the homes. The    education    of    the    children    of    the Milas   Jewish   community   was   initially   provided in   schools   such   as   Talmud   Torah,   which   had Torah   lessons.      Avram   Galanti   speaks   of   the presence   of   Talmud   Torah   in   Milas   in   1851.      At the   end   of   the   19th   century,   ‘Alliance   Israelite Universelle’    schools    came    into    place    for    the Jews.          In     the     Jewish     school     next     to     the synagogue    there    were    49    students    in    1897 and   95   in   1908.      There   was   a   separate   school for   the   girls.   The   Jewish   school   in   Milas
continued   its   function   under   the   management of    the    Alliance    schools.        Also,    there    were groups   of   Jewish   children   who   received   their education    in    schools    providing    education    in Turkish;   such   as   Mentese   Elementary   School and Milas Secondary School. BUSINESS LIFE Jews   in   Milas   mostly   were   engaged   in commerce.        Commerce-related    factors    are among      the      primary      reasons      for      Jews’ settlement   in   Milas.      In   particular,   the   trade   of certain   agricultural   products   such   as   tobacco and   cotton,      and   olive   and   olive   oil,   as   well   as the     drapery     and     jewelry     business,     were almost     completely     carried     out     by     Jews.       Mining was also under their management. They    ran    workshops    in    which    ‘Milas rugs’    were    woven.        Of    the    45    draperies    in Milas,   42   belonged   to   Jews.      Jewish   merchants in   Milas   used   to   export   goods   to   Izmir   and European    countries    from    Gulluk    Port.        The ‘wealth    tax’    of    November    11,    1942    did    not cause    Jews    to    experience    much    hardship.      What   is,   in   fact,   not   forgotten   by   the   Jews   in Milas   is   that   the   officials   in   Milas   actually   cut this   tax   to   the   amount   that   Jews   could   afford to   pay.      There   was   no   opposition   against   Jews in Milas as there was in other regions. There   were   157   Jewish   families   in   Milas in   the   year   of   1910.      After   that   year,   groups   of Jews   in   Milas   began   to   migrate   to   Izmir   and continued    their    involvement    in    commerce there.      Young   students   did   not   return   to   Milas and   continued   their   lives   in   big   cities   such   as Izmir   and   Istanbul.      In   addition   to   Izmir   and Istanbul,    there    were    those    who    moved    to Aydin,   Soke,   Bursa,   Ankara,   Datca,   Bandirma, Canakkale,    Edirne,    Corlu,    Tekirdag,    Mersin, and   Adana.      Some   others   moved   to   European countries, America, and Africa (Congo). PERIOD OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY There       were       80       Jewish       families remaining   in   Milas   in   the   year   1927.      Their population    decreased    after    1932.        The    real migration    of    Jews    from    Milas    took    place    in 1948   when   the   state   of   Israel   was   established.     Firstly,    the    young    ones    went    to    Israel    for military    service.        Later,    the    elderly    and    the women   migrated   to   Israel   through   Izmir.      The houses   they   stayed   in;   a   Jewish   cemetery   on the    outskirts    of    Mount    Sodra    in    southern Milas;   and   a   Hebrew   inscription   -consisting   of 5640   letters-   by   the   entrance   of   Miner   Nissim Tarica’s    house    in    Park    Street    in    the    Hoca Bedrettin   neighborhood   are   among   the   traces Jewish communities left in the region. Jews   from   Milas   used   to   gather   by   the Yarkon   Bridge   near   Tel   Aviv   every   year,   from the   year   1948   till   1980,   in   order   to   celebrate ‘The    day    of    Milasians.’        Jews    of    Milas    who gathered     here     would     commemorate     their friends   and   neighbors   from   Milas   by   chatting and    singing.        In    the    years    to    follow,    these gatherings    could    not    take    place    because    of age and health issues. The   contribution   of   the   Jews   of   Milas   to the   societal   make-up   of   Milas   is   great.      Men and    women    in    Milas    learned    tailoring    from the    Jewish    community.        They    taught    their merchants   and   artisans   to   love   what   they   did, to    claim    their    work,    and    to    have    discipline.      They     used     to     wear     their     most     precious clothing    as    though    they    were    going    to    a wedding    or    a    holiday    celebration    and    take ‘ornament   strolls.’      (This   strolling   used   to   take place   in   the   city   center   and   along   the   long   and wide avenue by the city park.) The   native   society   learned   a   great   deal about   commerce   from   Jews.      Although   they are    now    leading    their    lives    far    from    Milas, their    love    for    Milas    and    their    longing    for Turkey   never   ends.      They   come   back   to   Milas to   visit,   to   see   their   old   houses,   to   meet   with their   old   friends   and   neighbors   who   are   still alive.      They   are   an   inseparable   part   of   Milas and also our fellow countrymen. FAMOUS    PEOPLE    WHO    GROW    UP    IN MILAS JEWISH COMMUNITY Jakop   Tarika   (treasurer),   Joseph   Franco (treasurer),    Jacop    Messeri    (treasurer),    Hiziko Amato   (treasurer),   Moise   Franco   (Rabbi).   Haim Franco,      Jacop      Tarica,      Rabenou      Amato, Rahamim   Franco   ve   Jacop   Amato,   (members of   Bidayet   Court,   one   of   the   court   system   in Ottoman   Empire   law).   Dr.   Elie   de   Ciavés   and Dr.    Raphael    Pérahya    (doctors    of    municipal), Jakoup   Bérou   (Chief   of   Land   Registry),   Albert Cadranel     (Assistant     Manager     of     Revenue Service),     Behor     İsrael     (Member     of     Milas Municipal     Assembly,     editor     of     philosophy magazine,   chief   editor   of   Hadise   Newspaper), Behor    Bensoussan    (France    teacher),        Marco İsrael    (Milas    Middle    School    France    teacher), Joseph    Tarica    (Deputy    Consul    of    France    in Milas),   Joseph   Tarica   (interpreter   of   İzmir   U.S. Consul),     Sara     Cadranel     (alumna     of     Paris Allience    İsraelite    Universelle),    Rafael    Amato (Alumni   of   Istanbul   Law   Faculty   and   executive manager   of   Levant   newspaper   in   Izmir),   Albert Tarica   (Lawyer   in   İzmir,   he   wrote   business   law in   Hebrew   and   English,   he   was   president   of General   Assembly   of   Bene   Berith   Hospital   in İzmir),     Marcel     Franco     (He     studied     law     in Switzerland.    He    was    a    president    of    Jewish community   in   İstanbul),   Dr.   Gad   Franco   Milasli (Graduated     from     Turk     College     in     Rhodes Island.   Moved   to   İzmir   in   1902   and   worked   for Hikmet   ve   Ahenk   newspaper.   He   was   a   lawyer and   he   had   a   Phd.   from   Paris   Law   School   and wrote   a   lot   of   book   about   law),   Hizkia   Franco (Founder    of    Franco    printing    house    in    İzmir. With    his    cousin    Gad    Franco,    he    printed    El Commercial   Newspaper.   He   was   a   leader   of İzmir   Jewish   community.   He   published   Selam and   El   Boletin   newspapers.   He   wrote   a   book, Empresiones     J.     Reflexiones),     Leon     Danon (principal    of    Milas    Jewish    School    and    Bene Berith   School   in   İzmir),   Behor   Amato   (Lawyer), Dr.   Sara   Şikar   (Asaf   Arofe   Hospital),   Dr.   Jaakov Beja    (He    was    a    President    of    Israeli    Doctors Union),   Jaakov   Varol   (NASA),   Jontov   Levy   (He was a member of France Language Academia)

INSEPARABLE PART OF MILAS

Jewish    cemetery    in    Milas.    (Photo    by    Nevzat Tufekci)
One   of   Jewish   tomb   in   Milas   cemetery.   (Photo by Nevzat Tufekci)

Milas’ın Musevileri

Röportaj: Rahmi SİYMAN

Musevi Hemşerilerimizin

Milas Anıları

DİĞER YAZILAR

GSM: +90.542.535 51 71   |   e-Posta: nctmilas@gmail.com
© Nevzat Çağlar Tüfekçi / Milas - 2017

MİLAS JEWS

INSEPARABLE PART OF MILAS

Jewish cemetery in Milas. (Photo by Nevzat Tufekci)
One of Jewish tomb in Milas cemetery.(Photo by Nevzat Tufekci)

Milas’ın Musevileri

Röportaj: Rahmi SİYMAN

Musevi Hemşerilerimizin

Milas Anıları

DİĞER YAZILAR

The sign for Jewish Cemetery. (Photo by Nevzat Tufekci) By Nevzat Çağlar Tüfekçi Although   it   is   widely   known   that   Jews   lived   in   Milas,   an ancient   city   in   southwestern   Turkey,   part   of   Muğla   Province   and it   was   the   ancient   capital   of   Caria   and   of   the   Anatolian   Turkish Beylik    of    Menteşe,    the    territory    of    Milas    district    contains    a remarkable   twenty-seven   archaeological   sites.   In   the   18th   and 19th   centuries,   the   history   of   Jews   in   the   region   is   older.      In certain   historical   sources,   it   is   shown   that   in   the   ancient   port city    of    Iasos,    which    was    within    Milas,    there    was    a    Jewish community   in   the   centuries   before   the   common   era.      It   is   also understood   from   a   Hebrew   tomb   inscription   in   Port   Gumusluk of   Bodrum,   which   is   again   near   Milas,   that   Jews   lived   in   the   area in 6 B.C. During   the   Mentese   Principality,   which   ruled   in   Anatolia and    had    Milas    as    its    capital    city,    Jews    lived    in    Milas    during 1300’s. Among   the   minorities   living   in   Milas,   Greeks   were   the largest   group.      Jews   and   Armenians   followed   them   in   order.     The   Greek   population   was   the   greatest.      As   a   result   of   the   1924 Turkish-Greek     Population     Exchange,     about     3000     Greeks migrated   from   Milas   to   Greek   islands.      Jews   were   the   second largest    minority    group    in    Milas    after    Greeks.        There    are    no official   records   indicating   the   presence   of   Jews   in   Milas   until   the 19th   century.      Jews   came   to   Milas   in   the   19th   century   from Rodos, Aydin, and Izmir. JEWISH POPULATION IN MILAS During    the    first    half    of    the    19th    century,    there    was    a Jewish   community   consisting   of   ten   families.      The   population   of the    Jewish    community    in    Milas    was    542    between    1904    and 1905;   and   it   increased   to   1005   between   1914-1915.      According to   Ottoman   records,   on   March   14,   1914,   there   were   1615   Jews living   in   Mentese,   in   the   Mugla   province.      During   these   years, the   most   densely   populated   Jewish   communities   of   Mugla   were in   the   city   of   Milas.      There   were   two   reasons   for   this.      One   of the   reasons   is   that   some   of   the   Jewish   communities   moved   to Milas   because   of   the   possibility   of   bomb   attacks   from   ships   in Bodrum   during   the   First   World   War.      Another   reason   is   the commercial   potential   in   Milas   and   the   liveliness   of   economic life there.  This liveliness made Milas attractive. Jews   in   Milas   used   to   live   in   the   oldest   areas   of   the   city,   in the   Hoca   Bedrettin   and   Hisarbasi   neighborhoods.      Because   of this,   the   Hoca   Bedrettin   neighborhood   is   also   known   as   ‘Jewish Town’   among   many.      Mostly   Jews   lived   in   these   areas.      They worshiped   in   the   two   synagogues   on   Cicek   Street   in   the   Hoca Bedrettin   neighborhood.      One   of   these   synagogues   were   built in    1850,    and    the    other    in    1897.        The    location    of    these synagogues    is    now    used    for    the    Societal    Education    Center Directorate building.  The   first   governor   of   the   community,   Haham   Abraham Amato,    who    received    his    education    in    the    traditional    Jewish school   Yeshiva   in   Rodos   in   the   year   1835,   came   to   Milas   and took   over   the   duties   from   his   father   and   managed   community affairs    for    30    consecutive    years.        Over    the    years,    as    the population    of    the    Jewish    community    increased,    so    did    the number    of    their    rulers.        Celebi    Mordehai    Levi    from    Izmir, Morcado   Abaof   from   Rodos,   and   Celebi   Nissim   Soriano   from Aydin   came   to   Milas   and   had   influence   over   the   management of the community. JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS IN MILAS At   the   beginning   of   the   20th   century,   the   organization called    Juven    Union    (Youth    Assembly)    took    over    all    of    the institutions   of   the   community.      The   board   of   the   Juven   Union included   Nissim   J.   Tarika,   Hizkia   Franco,   Rahamim   S.   Tarika,   Gad Franco, Marco Israel and Alabuf. The   ‘Women’s   Assembly,’   which   was   established   in   1927 by   Rebecca   Benettar,   Kadum   Notrica,   Rachel   Amato,   Birlante Israel,   Elvira   Pisante,   Maria   Alhedef   and   Estreilla   Amato,   would arrange   sewing   classes   especially   for   the   orphaned   and   needy Jewish girls in order to help them prepare for life. Certain    other    women’s    organizations,    as    well,    used    to organize   parties   and   balls   to   fund   the   needy.      The   Milas   Jewish community   would   try   to   meet   the   needs   of   the   orphanage   in Izmir and the Jewish Hospital. The   reforms   of   the   early   years   of   the   Republic   did   not cause   any   discomfort   among   the   Jews   in   Milas.      Jews   welcomed the   modern   reforms,   such   as   the   replacement   of   the   Arabic alphabet   with   Latin   letters;   wearing   of   hats   instead   of   the   fez; and   abolishment   of   the   usage   of   the   veil.      Under   the   1934 surname   law,   many   Jews   took   Turkish   last   names.      There   was great   admiration   felt   towards   Ataturk   among   the   Jews   of   Milas.     In    November    10,    1938,    when    Ataturk    passed    away,    Jewish stores   in   Milas   were   closed   down   and   a   mourning   atmosphere took over in the homes. The    education    of    the    children    of    the    Milas    Jewish community   was   initially   provided   in   schools   such   as   Talmud Torah,   which   had   Torah   lessons.      Avram   Galanti   speaks   of   the presence   of   Talmud   Torah   in   Milas   in   1851.      At   the   end   of   the 19th   century,   ‘Alliance   Israelite   Universelle’   schools   came   into place   for   the   Jews.      In   the   Jewish   school   next   to   the   synagogue there   were   49   students   in   1897   and   95   in   1908.      There   was   a separate   school   for         the         girls.         The         Jewish         school         in         Milas continued   its   function   under   the   management   of   the   Alliance schools.        Also,    there    were    groups    of    Jewish    children    who received    their    education    in    schools    providing    education    in Turkish;     such     as     Mentese     Elementary     School     and     Milas Secondary School. BUSINESS LIFE Jews     in     Milas     mostly     were     engaged     in     commerce.       Commerce-related   factors   are   among   the   primary   reasons   for Jews’   settlement   in   Milas.      In   particular,   the   trade   of   certain agricultural   products   such   as   tobacco   and   cotton,      and   olive and   olive   oil,   as   well   as   the   drapery   and   jewelry   business,   were almost   completely   carried   out   by   Jews.      Mining   was   also   under their management. They   ran   workshops   in   which   ‘Milas   rugs’   were   woven.      Of the    45    draperies    in    Milas,    42    belonged    to    Jews.        Jewish merchants     in     Milas     used     to     export     goods     to     Izmir     and European    countries    from    Gulluk    Port.        The    ‘wealth    tax’    of November   11,   1942   did   not   cause   Jews   to   experience   much hardship.      What   is,   in   fact,   not   forgotten   by   the   Jews   in   Milas   is that the officials in Milas actually cut this tax to the amount that Jews   could   afford   to   pay.      There   was   no   opposition   against   Jews in Milas as there was in other regions. There   were   157   Jewish   families   in   Milas   in   the   year   of 1910.      After   that   year,   groups   of   Jews   in   Milas   began   to   migrate to   Izmir   and   continued   their   involvement   in   commerce   there.     Young   students   did   not   return   to   Milas   and   continued   their lives   in   big   cities   such   as   Izmir   and   Istanbul.      In   addition   to   Izmir and    Istanbul,    there    were    those    who    moved    to    Aydin,    Soke, Bursa,    Ankara,    Datca,    Bandirma,    Canakkale,    Edirne,    Corlu, Tekirdag,   Mersin,   and   Adana.      Some   others   moved   to   European countries, America, and Africa (Congo). PERIOD OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY There   were   80   Jewish   families   remaining   in   Milas   in   the year   1927.      Their   population   decreased   after   1932.      The   real migration   of   Jews   from   Milas   took   place   in   1948   when   the   state of   Israel   was   established.      Firstly,   the   young   ones   went   to   Israel for   military   service.      Later,   the   elderly   and   the   women   migrated to   Israel   through   Izmir.      The   houses   they   stayed   in;   a   Jewish cemetery   on   the   outskirts   of   Mount   Sodra   in   southern   Milas; and   a   Hebrew   inscription   -consisting   of   5640   letters-   by   the entrance   of   Miner   Nissim   Tarica’s   house   in   Park   Street   in   the Hoca    Bedrettin    neighborhood    are    among    the    traces    Jewish communities left in the region. Jews   from   Milas   used   to   gather   by   the   Yarkon   Bridge   near Tel   Aviv   every   year,   from   the   year   1948   till   1980,   in   order   to celebrate   ‘The   day   of   Milasians.’      Jews   of   Milas   who   gathered here   would   commemorate   their   friends   and   neighbors   from Milas   by   chatting   and   singing.      In   the   years   to   follow,   these gatherings    could    not    take    place    because    of    age    and    health issues. The    contribution    of    the    Jews    of    Milas    to    the    societal make-up   of   Milas   is   great.      Men   and   women   in   Milas   learned tailoring    from    the    Jewish    community.        They    taught    their merchants   and   artisans   to   love   what   they   did,   to   claim   their work,   and   to   have   discipline.      They   used   to   wear   their   most precious   clothing   as   though   they   were   going   to   a   wedding   or   a holiday   celebration   and   take   ‘ornament   strolls.’      (This   strolling used   to   take   place   in   the   city   center   and   along   the   long   and wide avenue by the city park.) The   native   society   learned   a   great   deal   about   commerce from   Jews.      Although   they   are   now   leading   their   lives   far   from Milas,   their   love   for   Milas   and   their   longing   for   Turkey   never ends.      They   come   back   to   Milas   to   visit,   to   see   their   old   houses, to   meet   with   their   old   friends   and   neighbors   who   are   still   alive.     They    are    an    inseparable    part    of    Milas    and    also    our    fellow countrymen. FAMOUS    PEOPLE    WHO    GROW    UP    IN    MILAS    JEWISH COMMUNITY Jakop   Tarika   (treasurer),   Joseph   Franco   (treasurer),   Jacop Messeri    (treasurer),    Hiziko    Amato    (treasurer),    Moise    Franco (Rabbi).   Haim   Franco,   Jacop   Tarica,   Rabenou   Amato,   Rahamim Franco   ve   Jacop   Amato,   (members   of   Bidayet   Court,   one   of   the court   system   in   Ottoman   Empire   law).   Dr.   Elie   de   Ciavés   and   Dr. Raphael   Pérahya   (doctors   of   municipal),   Jakoup   Bérou   (Chief   of Land   Registry),   Albert   Cadranel   (Assistant   Manager   of   Revenue Service),   Behor   İsrael   (Member   of   Milas   Municipal   Assembly, editor     of     philosophy     magazine,     chief     editor     of     Hadise Newspaper),   Behor   Bensoussan   (France   teacher),      Marco   İsrael (Milas    Middle    School    France    teacher),    Joseph    Tarica    (Deputy Consul   of   France   in   Milas),   Joseph   Tarica   (interpreter   of   İzmir U.S.   Consul),   Sara   Cadranel   (alumna   of   Paris   Allience   İsraelite Universelle),   Rafael   Amato   (Alumni   of   Istanbul   Law   Faculty   and executive   manager   of   Levant   newspaper   in   Izmir),   Albert   Tarica (Lawyer   in   İzmir,   he   wrote   business   law   in   Hebrew   and   English, he   was   president   of   General   Assembly   of   Bene   Berith   Hospital in   İzmir),   Marcel   Franco   (He   studied   law   in   Switzerland.   He   was a   president   of   Jewish   community   in   İstanbul),   Dr.   Gad   Franco Milasli   (Graduated   from   Turk   College   in   Rhodes   Island.   Moved to   İzmir   in   1902   and   worked   for   Hikmet   ve   Ahenk   newspaper. He   was   a   lawyer   and   he   had   a   Phd.   from   Paris   Law   School   and wrote    a    lot    of    book    about    law),    Hizkia    Franco    (Founder    of Franco   printing   house   in   İzmir.   With   his   cousin   Gad   Franco,   he printed   El   Commercial   Newspaper.   He   was   a   leader   of   İzmir Jewish     community.     He     published     Selam     and     El     Boletin newspapers.    He    wrote    a    book,    Empresiones    J.    Reflexiones), Leon   Danon   (principal   of   Milas   Jewish   School   and   Bene   Berith School   in   İzmir),   Behor   Amato   (Lawyer),   Dr.   Sara   Şikar   (Asaf Arofe   Hospital),   Dr.   Jaakov   Beja   (He   was   a   President   of   Israeli Doctors    Union),    Jaakov    Varol    (NASA),    Jontov    Levy    (He    was    a member of France Language Academia)
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